By C. M. Wood, S. F. Perry (auth.), Professor Dr. Raymond Gilles (eds.)
This quantity is a type of released from the complaints of the invited lectures to the 1st foreign Congress of Comparative body structure and Biochemistry I equipped at Liege (Belgium) in August 1984 below the auspices of the component of Comparative body structure and Biochemistry of the overseas Union of organic Sciences. In a basic foreword to those various volumes, it kind of feels to me applicable to think about in brief what could be the comparative method. dwelling organisms, past the variety in their morphological kinds, have advanced a common diversity of easy recommendations to deal with different difficulties, either organisma1 and environmenta1 with which they're confronted. quickly after the flip of the century, a few biologists discovered that those options could be most sensible comprehended within the body paintings of a comparative technique integrating result of physiologica1 and biochemica1 stories performed on the organismic, mobile and molecular degrees. the improvement of this method among either physiologists and biochemists remained, despite the fact that, tremendous gradual until eventually recently.
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Extra info for Circulation, Respiration, and Metabolism: Current Comparative Approaches
An increase in lung-arterial Po gradients is contrary to changes seen in man (Whipp and Wasserman 1%9). The large •gradient in resting lizards is likely due to cardiac shunts, which are known to exist in resting animals (Berger and Heisler 1977). A constant or increasing right-to-Ieft cardiac shunt cannot explain the increasing pulmonary diffusion gradient for oxygen during exercise, however, as shunting venous blood of reduced oxygen content during exercise would result in a lower Pao. ' which does not occur (Figs.
A second challenge is that of increasing ventilation sufficiently to maintain a favorable gradient for oxygen diffusion to arterial blood. Most lizards are capable of maintaining arterial oxygen con ten t during exercise, although they generally do not maintain the high levels of saturation typical of mammals. The third challenge is maintaining acid-base balance in the face of hydrogen ion produced as an end product of anaerobic metabolism. Buffering this hydrogen ion production is the role of the bicarbonate buffer system.
The recovery period following exhaustive exercise is a period of hypoventilation relative to both V0 2 and VC0 2 • The result in Varanus salvator is that Paa. declines relative to resting values, and both Paco. and [HCO;] slowly increase as metabolically Table 1. Acid-base changes following exhaustive exercise in lizards and crocodile Variable Units R affer exercise Pao 2 PacO. pH [HCO;)a [L)a 8 mmHg mmHg mM mM V. salvator a V. exanthematicus 8 I. iguana 8 C. 32 +19 +14 Data from Gleeson and Bennett 1982 Data from Seymour et al.