Download Chemistry Made Clear - GCSE Edition by R Ingram, P Gallagher PDF

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By R Ingram, P Gallagher

Chemistry Made transparent is familiar as a center GCSE Chemistry textual content, or because the Chemistry portion of a balanced technological know-how path. scholars can be capable of finding issues out fast and simply one of the simplified causes. * each one double-page unfold offers with a unique subject and comprises questions * examination point questions on the finish of every bankruptcy * Line drawings and pictures spotlight the real-life functions of chemistry Chemistry Made transparent can be instructed by way of collage of Cambridge foreign Examinations for IGCSE Chemistry.

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Covalent compounds On the opposite page you saw that several non-metal elements exist as molecules. A huge number of compounds also exist as molecules. In a molecular compound, atoms of different elements share electrons with each other. These compounds are often called covalent compounds because of the covalent bonds in them. Water, ammonia and methane are all covalent compounds. Water The formula of water is H 20. In each molecule, an oxygen atom shares electrons with two hydrogen atoms, and they all reach full shells: an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms a molecule of water, H20 A model of the water molecule.

The sheets of atoms lie on top of each other, held together by weak forces. This is a side view of a piece of graphite, magnified 5 million times! The dark lines are the sheets of atoms. Graphite has these properties: 1 It is soft and slippery. This is because the sheets of atoms can slide over each other easily. 2 It is a good conductor of electricity. This is because each atom has four outer electrons, but forms only three bonds. The fourth electron is free to move through the graphite, carrying charge.

All three atoms belong to the element hydrogen, because they all have 1 proton. They are called isotopes of hydrogen. Isotopes are atoms of the same element, with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Most elements have more than one isotope. For example carbon has three: 1 ~C, 1 ~C and 1~C. Chlorine has two: ~Cl and i~Cl. Questions 1. Which element has atoms with: a 5 protons? b 15 protons? c 20 protons? 2 A hydrogen atom can be described as }H. Use the same method to describe the atoms of all the elements listed on page 28.

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