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Extra resources for Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages?: Policy and Practice on Four Continents
Reforpma 97 evalueren, Kárášjohka: Cálliid Lágádus. Hirvonen, Vuokko (2004), Sámi Culture and the School: Reflections by Sámi Teachers and the Realization of the Sámi School. An Evaluation Study of Reform 97, trans. Kaija Anttonen, Kárášjohka: C álliid Lágádus. Huss, Leena (1999), Reversing Language Shift in the Far North, Linguistic Revitalization in Northern Scandinavia and Finland, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studia Uralica Upsaliensia 31, Uppsala: Uppsala University. 169 Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries.
They have to have a strong identity and they are skillful students in other respects, too. There are seven schools where Sámi is only an optional subject (Leavdnja lower secondary school, Bokcá, Juovlavuotna, Ruoššanjárga, Sieiddá, Trollvik and Dálošvággi). The level of instruction is very low, 3–4 hours per week, and children do not hear the Sámi language outside the classroom. According to Leanne Hinton, it is not easy to revitalize the language through the language-as-a-subject program, because there is rarely enough time or it is not possible to put the language to practical use.
Kárášjohka primary school (1–7) Trollvik school(1–5) Dálošvággi school(1–10) Olmmáivággi school(1–10) Juovlavuotna school(1–10) Bokcá school(1–10) Deatnu Sámi school (1–10) Sieiddá school (1–10) Sirbmá school (1–10) School (grades) 253 340 0 0 7 7 88 0 0 66 0 22 253 340 0 0 7 7 93 0 5 66 0 22 65 91 10 11 42 63 56 8 23 0 23 2 a medium 1st language 2nd language Sámi as 0 1 16 8 13 37 36 8 7 0 21 0 65 92 77 126 93 298 253 46 63 0 142 2 (Continued) 319 432 77 126 100 303 341 46 63 66 142 24 Sámi Norwegian as Total no.