By Mathias Weske
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Thereby, the handover of work can be reduced. , it requires knowledge workers who have a broad understanding of the ultimate goals of their work. At an organizational level, process orientation has led to the characterization of the operations of an enterprise using business processes. While there are different approaches, they have in common the fact that the top-level business processes are expressed in an informal way, often even in plain English text. Also each enterprise should not have more than about a dozen organisational business processes.
GUI Application Application Application DBMS Database DBMS OS OS Database OS t 1970 1980 1990 Fig. 1. Early systems achitectures The next step in the evolution of systems architectures considers the management of data. Before dedicated subsystems for handing data were developed, each application program was responsible for storing its data persistently and for retrieving it. Programming interfaces were used to store data. Since the structure of the stored data matches the data structure in the application program, each change in the data structures of the application results in a change of the data structures in persistent memory, and vice versa.
Relational database systems allow modification of the structures of the physically stored data without affecting the application programs. This important property is known as physical data independence. , the ability to change the logical organization of the data without the need to change applications. Efficient and convenient access to large amounts of data, declara- 28 2 Evolution of Enterprise Systems Architectures tive query languages, most prominently the Structured Query Language SQL, transaction processing capabilities to cater for concurrent access and recovery from failure situations, security aspects, and many more features are realized in today’s database management systems.