By Valer Pop, Henk Jan Bergveld, Dmitry Danilov, Paul P. L. Regtien, Peter H. L. Notten
This ebook describes the sphere of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. an outline of the cutting-edge of SoC indication tools together with on hand marketplace strategies from major semiconductor businesses is supplied. All disciplines are coated, from electric, chemical, mathematical and size engineering to realizing battery habit. This publication will for that reason is for people in engineering and focused on battery administration.
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The stored battery charge or discharge curves are divided into curve portions defined by voltage levels and rates of changes of the voltage levels. Each curve portion defines a particular SoC of the battery. Measured voltage levels and rates of changes are then associated with the predetermined charge or discharge curve portion and the defined SoC. In 1974 Brandwein et al. developed a device for monitoring nickel–cadmium batteries . In addition to voltage measurements, the current that flows into and out of the battery and the battery temperature are measured and used in order to provide SoC indication.
As such measurements encompass a wide range of ac signal frequencies, various characteristic parameters of the electrochemical cell and the kinetics of the associated reactions can be evaluated . As an alternative, Dowgiallo et al. (1975) and Zaugg (1982) developed methods for determining a battery’s SoC on the basis of impedance measurements , . The phase angle between the ac voltage across the battery terminals and the ac current through the battery (measured as a voltage through a sense resistor) is continuously monitored.
These book-keeping algorithms also rely on a battery cell model that provides performance information of the particular chemical system in use. The cell models are often referred to as ‘look-up tables’ or LUTs. The look-up tables are stepwise approximations of the performance response curves that can be drawn when looking at discharge performance as a function of for example temperature and discharge rate. There are two look-up tables that define the predictive model for the lithium-ion cell chemistry.