By Carole Hollins
Chapter 1 easy Biology – assessment (pages 1–19): Carole Hollins
Chapter 2 Cardiovascular approach (pages 20–39): Carole Hollins
Chapter three breathing procedure (pages 40–52): Carole Hollins
Chapter four Digestive method (pages 53–74): Carole Hollins
Chapter five frightened method (pages 75–87): Carole Hollins
Chapter 6 Oral Embryology and Histology (pages 88–106): Carole Hollins
Chapter 7 cranium and Oral Anatomy (pages 107–141): Carole Hollins
Chapter eight enamel Anatomy (pages 142–157): Carole Hollins
Chapter nine Periodontal Anatomy (pages 158–166): Carole Hollins
Chapter 10 Salivary Glands (pages 167–173): Carole Hollins
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Additional info for Basic Guide to Anatomy and Physiology for Dental Care Professionals
In contrast, the inspired air entering the alveoli contains a high concentration of oxygen but little carbon dioxide. Between the two areas then, there is a concentration gradient of these two gases, which allows the movement of them from one area to another. By the laws of physics, all gases at different concentrations will tend to equilibrate themselves, by flowing from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, until the two areas are at an equal concentration. So, oxygen dissolves into the fluid layer around the alveoli and then diffuses across the thin membrane between the air space and the surrounding capillaries, along the concentration gradient and into the pulmonary blood.
The gingival hyperplasia is exacerbated, but not caused by, the presence of dental plaque. BLBK425-c02 June 7, 2012 Cardiovascular system 15:34 Trim: 234mm×153mm Char Count= 39 Hypertension • Diuretics – such as ‘bendroflumethiazide’, which reduce the volume of fluid that the heart is having to pump around the body, by enabling the kidneys to function more efficiently and excrete it • Calcium antagonists – such as ‘amlodipine’, which act to relax the muscle layer of arteries to allow their dilation and allow more peripheral blood flow, so taking the strain off the heart • Propanolol and atenolol – which slow the heart rate and the force of contraction, thereby reducing the cardiac output and lessening the strain on the heart CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM The aim of drug therapy is to maintain a reduced blood pressure as a preventive measure, so that organ damage due to untreated hypertension is kept to a minimum: BLBK425-c03 June 7, 2012 15:37 Trim: 234mm×153mm Char Count= Chapter 3 Respiratory system The respiratory system is composed of the following: • The lungs • Upper respiratory vessels that allow entry of atmospheric air into the respiratory system – nose (and mouth), larynx (and pharynx) and trachea (the windpipe) • Lower respiratory airways that allow passage of atmospheric air into the lungs themselves – main bronchi and bronchioles (as conducting airways) • Final respiratory airways that allow gaseous exchange to occur – respiratory bronchioles, alveolar sacs and alveoli Unlike the cardiovascular system, which is sealed and enclosed, the respiratory system is open to the atmosphere to allow the intake of air during breathing.
The peripheral chemoreceptors lie just at the point where the coronary arteries branch to form the internal and external carotid arteries, the main arterial supplies to the brain and the head. These chemoreceptors are called the carotid bodies and are distinct anatomical structures that send nerve impulses to the brain when stimulated, via a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX). Stimulation occurs when oxygen levels fall, carbon dioxide levels rise, or if the pH of the arterial blood passing through the carotid arteries alters.