By Erika Lee
With the chinese language Exclusion Act of 1882, chinese language employees turned the 1st staff in American heritage to be excluded from the us at the foundation in their race and sophistication. This landmark legislations replaced the process U.S. immigration historical past, yet we all know little approximately its effects for the chinese language in the United States or for the U.S. as a kingdom of immigrants.
At America's Gates is the 1st e-book committed completely to either chinese language immigrants and the yankee immigration officers who sought to maintain them out. Erika Lee explores how chinese language exclusion legislation not just remodeled chinese language American lives, immigration styles, identities, and households but additionally recast the USA right into a ''gatekeeping nation.'' Immigrant identity, border enforcement, surveillance, and deportation regulations have been prolonged a ways past any controls that had existed within the usa prior to.
Drawing on a wealthy trove of historic sources--including lately published immigration files, oral histories, interviews, and letters--Lee brings alive the forgotten trips, secrets and techniques, hardships, and triumphs of chinese language immigrants. Her well timed booklet exposes the legacy of chinese language exclusion in present American immigration keep an eye on and race relatives.
Read Online or Download At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943 PDF
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Additional resources for At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943
72 The solution, all agreed, lay in immigration policy, and a succession of federal laws were passed to increase the control and regulation of threatening and inferior immigrants. 75 By the s, exclusion, restriction, and deportation had been extended to other immigrant groups and codiﬁed into law and immigration service practices. 76 Chinese Exclusion and American Gatekeeping :: ‘‘The Chinese Wall Goes Up,’’ from Puck, Mar. , . This cartoon was published just a few months before the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress.
35 In terms of immigration restriction, however, new immigrants were more closely racialized along the Chinese immigrant model, especially in the Paciﬁc Coast states. ’’ 36 The persistent use of the metaphor of the closed gate, combined with the rhetoric of ‘‘unwelcome invasions,’’ most clearly reveals the diﬀerence. African Americans, originally brought into the nation as slaves, could never really be ‘‘sent back’’ despite their alleged inferiority and threat to the nation. ’’ Chinese, who were racialized as polar opposites to ‘‘Americans,’’ also clearly did not belong in the United States and were often compared to blacks.
In both their overt challenges and their everyday acts of resistance, immigrants deﬁed their exclusion from the United States by moving around the barriers designed to exclude them while simultaneously staking their own claims to America. In this section, Chapter locates the roots of American gatekeeping in the debates, racialized discourses, and regulations surrounding Chinese immigration and exclusion. S. immigration service locally and nationally. :: Closing the Gates T H E C H I N E S E A R E C O M I N G.