By John Watkinson
"The thought and dynamics of helicopter flight are complicated and for the uninitiated, tricky. yet during this ebook, British helicopter pilot and technical writer John Watkinson units out to simplify the thoughts, and clarify in lay-man's phrases how a helicopter operates. utilizing pictures and over four hundred diagrams, all points of rotary flight are coated together with the background of rotor-craft, helicopter dynamics, rotors, tails, energy vegetation and regulate. this can be an outstanding publication for any helicopter enthusiast." Airforce, Fall 2004 "...clear and straightforward diagrams that reduction verbal causes of ways helicopters are made." -AOPA, 2004 "The artwork of the Helicopter is designed to de-mystify the complexity because it examines helicopter aerodynamic concept, layout and function. The e-book goals to debate its topics readably, start every one topic from first rules and construct on these in a "clearly defined logical series utilizing simple English and transparent diagrams, keeping off pointless mathematics"... - Flight protection Digest, may perhaps 2004
, Pages xi-xii
, Page xiii
1 - creation to rotorcraft
, Pages 1-21
2 - Technical background
, Pages 22-60
3 - creation to helicopter dynamics
, Pages 61-116
4 - Rotors in practice
, Pages 117-165
5 - The tail
, Pages 166-190
6 - Engines and transmissions
, Pages 191-257
7 - Control
, Pages 258-322
8 - Helicopter performance
, Pages 323-346
9 - different different types of rotorcraft
, Pages 347-378
, Pages 379-390
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Because sound travels at a finite speed, the fixed observer at some distance from the source will experience the disturbance at some later time. In the case of a transient, the observer will detect a single replica of the original as it passes at the speed of sound. In the case of the tuning fork, a periodic sound source, the pressure peaks and dips follow one another away from the source at the speed of sound. For a given rate of vibration of the source, a given peak will have propagated a constant distance before the next peak occurs.
Technical background 51 centripetal force in the absence of acceleration, a new virtual force of equal magnitude but opposite direction has to be imagined to act. This is called the centrifugal force. In the real world centrifugal force does not exist, it is a mathematical convenience needed to allow an apparent state of equilibrium in a rotating frame of reference. In a fixed frame of reference, consider a turning rotor. 31 (b) shows that if one of the blades should move upwards, the centre of mass of the blade will move closer to the axis of rotation, reducing the moment of inertia.
The overdamped system takes a considerable time to return to rest. The critically damped system returns to rest in the shortest time possible subject to not overshooting. Below resonance the displacement of the spring is proportional to the force. Here force and displacement are in phase. Above resonance the acceleration of the mass is proportional to the force. Here force and acceleration are in phase. 22 that the velocity leads the displacement but lags the acceleration. Consequently below resonance the velocity leads the applied force whereas above resonance it lags.