By Domenico Ribatti
It has been regularly permitted that angiogenesis is fascinated about the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies, like acute and protracted leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms and a number of myeloma. the level of angiogenesis within the bone marrow has been correlated with sickness burden, analysis and therapy end result. Reciprocal optimistic and detrimental interactions among tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts/osteoclasts, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, T cells, macrophages and mast cells, mediated via an array of cytokines, receptors and adhesion molecules, modulate the angiogenic reaction in hematological tumors. extra lately, it's been emphasised the pro-angiogenic function of the so known as “vascular niche”, indicating a website wealthy in blood vessels the place endothelial cells and mural cells reminiscent of pericytes and tender muscle cells create a microenvironment that is affecting the habit of numerous stem and progenitor cells, in hematological malignancies.
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Extra info for Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenesis in Hematological Malignancies
2008). High plasma MMP-9 levels and adult T cell leukemia (ATL) cell invasion, as well as plasma VEGF levels are closely related (Hayashibara et al. 2002). Production of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by CLL B-cells may be suppressed by interferons (Kay et al. 2002; Bauvois et al. 2002). Immunohistochemical evidence demonstrated that MMP-9 was associated with areas of tissue remodeling and invasion (Kamiguti et al. 2004) and elevated intracellular levels of MMP-9 correlated with advanced CLL stage and poor survival.
2002), while in patients with DLBCL treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP), high serum level of VEGF was associated with adverse outcome, having lower values in survivors than in non-survivors (Aref et al. 2004). VEGF expression was also demonstrated in PTCL, DLBCL, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), primary effusion lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) (Doussis-Anagnostopuolou et al. 2002; Foss et al. 1997; Chen et al. 2000; Kay et al.
2 Sections of bone marrow biopsies stained with Factor VIII-RA for microvessels (a, b) and with tryptase for mast cells (c, d) from a control subjects (a, c) and from a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (b, d). Note in a and b strongly stained megakaryocytes as internal positive controls. (Reproduced from Ribatti et al. 2003b) stage A patients (Ribatti et al. 2003b).