By L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel
Dimension shapes clinical theories, characterises advancements in production procedures and promotes effective trade. In live performance with dimension is uncertainty, and scholars in technological know-how and engineering have to establish and quantify uncertainties within the measurements they make. This booklet introduces size and uncertainty to moment and 3rd yr scholars of technology and engineering. Its strategy will depend on the the world over regarded and suggested instructions for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known through the acronym GUM). The statistics underpinning the equipment are thought of and labored examples and routines are unfold through the textual content. designated case reviews in line with general undergraduate experiments are incorporated to enhance the rules defined within the e-book. This advisor can also be beneficial to pros in who're anticipated to grasp the modern equipment during this more and more very important sector. extra on-line assets can be found to aid the ebook at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.
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Extra resources for An introduction to uncertainty in measurement using the GUM
05 m. 2%. 5 Such an analysis is to be preferred, since it leads to a clearer decision as to how many ﬁgures to retain. 24 Measurement fundamentals Rules 2 and 3 say, essentially, that the proportional uncertainty in the result of a calculation is dominated by the least accurate component in the calculation. Rule 2 When values are multiplied or divided, quote the answer to the number of signiﬁcant digits that implies a proportional uncertainty closest to the greater of the component proportional uncertainties.
Finally, it is worth noting that, if n is between −1 and 1, implying a fractional power, the proportional uncertainty in the result will be less than that in the original data. This would arise, for example, if we calculated the diameter of a sphere when given its volume. 15 K Where there are several steps in a calculation, it is prudent not to round intermediate results, since premature rounding introduces unnecessary error that will propagate through to the ﬁnal answer. If in doubt, use all the ﬁgures available at each step in a calculation.
There are cases in electrical metrology where geometry-independence is complete, in the sense that the basic equations determining an electrical standard involve no length measurements at all. Three examples are the Josephson effect as used for voltage standards, the quantum Hall effect as used for resistance standards and the so-called cryogenic current comparator for measuring ratios of direct currents (‘dc’). These are described, respectively, in the following three articles: C. A. Hamilton, C.