By Daniela Felisini
This booklet presents a shiny biography of a towering Italian banker, pioneer and entrepreneur. It weaves the entrepreneurial ventures of Alessandro Torlonia (1800-1886) in the course of the narratives of industrial and politics within the 19th century, the expansion of ecu monetary markets and the decline of Papal energy through the Italian Risorgimento. The dialogue is based in rigorous old examine utilizing unique resources corresponding to the Archivum Secretum Vaticanum papers and different respectable records; the files of the Torlonia kinfolk, and of the Rothschild financial institution in Paris; memoirs; correspondences, and newspapers. via this booklet readers examine that Alessandro Torlonia used to be a guy of many faces, who used to be the most complicated and influential characters of Italian fiscal lifestyles within the 19th century. Felisini additionally offers knowledgeable critique of the monetary background of the papacy: a space of heightened curiosity given the notoriety of family among the Holy See and its bankers within the 20th and twenty-first centuries. Focal subject matters akin to the background of ecu elites and the heritage of ecu monetary markets could have an interdisciplinary allure for students and researchers.
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2359. On this, see Delumeau, L’alun de Rome 15–19e siècle. 8 The Reverenda Camera Apostolica (Apostolic Camera) had for many centuries been the body responsible for the financial, administrative and judicial rule of the Papal States. During the nineteenth century it became less powerful; its responsibilities started to be reduced and taken up by bodies that were more like modern ministries. See Felici, La Reverenda Camera Apostolica. 6 20 Alessandro Torlonia: The Pope’s Banker the operating methods, with the dual objective of avoiding damage to the deposits and maintaining the quality and price of the alum.
13 Okey, The Habsburg Monarchy. 14 Becattini, Storia di Pio VI, 96–97. ”15 Provisions to counter the hoarding and stockpiling of metal coinage were as unsuccessful as they were numerous,16 and the attempts to reduce the excess of cedole in circulation were just as ineffective. ”17 Such a situation could not but favour the position of someone like Giovanni Torlonia who had both liquidity in currency and an understanding of how the money and credit market worked. From 1783 he could be found in the Elenco dei banchieri esercitanti in Roma (List of bankers practising in Rome), a relatively small group of operators who were authorized to participate in the Congresso de’ cambj (Exchange Rates Fixing Meeting) which took place every Friday evening at Borromini’s Palazzo della Sapienza, on Corso Rinascimento.
48 In the light of these considerations, based on a careful study of the original sources, the significance of the two-year period of the Republic for the rise of Giovanni Torlonia should perhaps be reassessed. In order to better understand his strategies and the reasons for his success, we need to examine a longer period, taking in the Pope’s return to Rome in July 1800 and then the years of the French presence (1805–1814). Only such a time span can offer a proper picture of the many fields within which Torlonia operated during those years of turbulence.