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By Kedlaya K.S.

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A ball around) a point x, then we say the limit of f at x exists and equals L if for every > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that 0 < ||t|| < δ =⇒ |f (x + t) − L| < . ) We say f is continuous at x if limt→0 f (x + t) = f (x). If y is any vector and x is in the domain of f , we say the directional derivative of f along x in the direction y exists and equals fy (x) if f (x + ty) − f (x) fy (x) = lim . t→0 t If f is written as a function of variables x1 , . . , xn , we call the directional derivative along the i-th standard basis vector the partial derivative of f with respect to i and denote it by ∂f .

N with |α1 | > 1, |α2 | > 1, . . , |αj | > 1 and |αj+1 | ≤ 1, |αj+2 | ≤ 1, . . , |αn | ≤ 1. Prove that j i=1 |αi | ≤ |a0 |2 + |a1 |2 + · · · + |an |2 . ) 6. Prove that, for any real numbers x, y, z, 3(x2 − x + 1)(y 2 − y + 1)(z 2 − z + 1) ≥ (xyz)2 + xyz + 1. 7. (a) Prove that any polynomial P (x) such that P (x) ≥ 0 for all real x can be written as the sum of the squares of two polynomials. (b) Prove that the polynomial x2 (x2 − y 2 )(x2 − 1) + y 2 (y 2 − 1)(y 2 − x2 ) + (1 − x2 )(1 − y 2 ) is everywhere nonnegative, but cannot be written as the sum of squares of any number of polynomials.

5, where xn+5 = xn for all n. Prove that x1 = · · · = x5 . 4. (USAMO 1979/3) Let x, y, z ≥ 0 with x + y + z = 1. Prove that 1 x3 + y 3 + z 3 + 6xyz ≥ . 4 34 5. (Taiwan, 1995) Let P (x) = 1 + a1 x + · · · + an−1 xn−1 + xn be a polynomial with complex coefficients. Suppose the roots of P (x) are α1 , α2 , . . , αn with |α1 | > 1, |α2 | > 1, . . , |αj | > 1 and |αj+1 | ≤ 1, |αj+2 | ≤ 1, . . , |αn | ≤ 1. Prove that j i=1 |αi | ≤ |a0 |2 + |a1 |2 + · · · + |an |2 . ) 6. Prove that, for any real numbers x, y, z, 3(x2 − x + 1)(y 2 − y + 1)(z 2 − z + 1) ≥ (xyz)2 + xyz + 1.

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